[27] Similar measures were adopted by West Germany (1976), Sweden (1982), Denmark (1983) and Spain (1999). The custom of a woman changing her name upon marriage is recent. A similar system is used in Greece. Names derived from this may include King, Lord and Virgin. From the 1960s onwards, this usage spread to the common people, again under French influence, this time, however, due to the forceful legal adoption of their husbands' surname which was imposed onto Portuguese immigrant women in France.

In some instances, when an individual's given name and first family name are too common (such as in José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Mario Vargas Llosa), both family names are used (though not necessarily both given names). Family names sometimes change or are replaced by non-family-name surnames under political pressure to avoid persecution.

The same can be said for women who achieved their fame during a previous marriage; For example: Kris Jenner (born Kris Houghton) was married to her second spouse Caitlyn Jenner when she rose to prominence in the reality show Keeping Up with the Kardashians and singer Britney Spears has been married twice after she rose to prominence, but she still used her maiden name while married. as they are increasingly seen as sexist (i.e. [7][8] In France, Italy, Spain, Belgium and Latin America, administrative usage is to put the surname before the first on official documents.

[47] Also, it is legally possible for the husband to adopt his wife's surname(s), but this practice is rare. In other cultures the surname is placed first, followed by the given name or names. For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they may become known as "John Smith-Jones" and "Mary Smith-Jones". [19] By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman Empire. [24], In 1979, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ("CEDAW"), which declared in effect that women and men, and specifically wife and husband, shall have the same rights to choose a "family name", as well as a profession and an occupation. Spellings and pronunciations of names remained fluid in the United States until the Social Security System enforced standardization. These descriptors often developed into fixed clan identifications that in turn became family names as we know them today. What made you want to look up last name? Location names, or habitation names, may be as generic as "Monte" (Portuguese for "mountain"), "Górski" (Polish for "hill") or "Pitt" (variant of "pit"), but may also refer to specific locations. Henceforth, they became mandatory, although the rules for their use were very liberal.

[15][16] Chinese women do not change their names upon marriage.

See the full definition for last name in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for last name, Britannica English: Translation of last name for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about last name. This is because "Paz" alone is not his surname (although other people use the "Paz" surname on its own). Such locations can be any type of settlement, such as: homesteads, farms, enclosures, villages, hamlets, strongholds or cottages. [30] The Court found all these laws to be in violation of the convention. His children, therefore, would inherit the compound surname "Paz y Miño" as their paternal surname, while Estrella would be lost, since the mother's paternal surname becomes the children's second surname (as their own maternal surname). Some rare types of surnames are universal and gender-neutral: in Czech language e.g. This custom is not seen in the Hispanic world as being a true compound surname system per se, since it is widely understood that the first surname denotes one's father's family, and the second surname denotes one's mother's family. Meir Bar-Ilan.

One element of a habitation name may describe the type of settlement.

In doing so they would, for example, mistakenly refer to Esteban Álvarez Cobos as Esteban A. Cobos.

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